The Crime Fighters

by W.O.G. Lofts and Derek Adley

Page 12

Page 11 Index Table-of-Contents
Lieutenant John Hawk, who worked for the New York District Attorney’s Special Squad, was a full-blooded Indian whose grandfather was at the Little Big Horn. He was a swarthy man who wore expensive shirts and gold cuff links. He had powerful hands and all the grace, courage and strength of his race. Burt Reynolds, who played the title part in this 1966 ABC-TV series, did so with appealing stoniness. Writers included Lewis Reed. A book entitled Hawk by Richard Hardwick followed the series, bearing the blurb “In the glittering, dangerous night world of Manhattan, they call him Hawk, a man who lives in the night.”

Tom Hawk. See: Night-Hawk.

Dalton Hawke
Dalton Hawke, a schoolboy detective from London, was featured in the Magnet in 1912. The author was Frank Richards of Billy Bunter fame. Hawke arrived at Greyfriars School as a new boy named “Armitage” to investigate the case of some valuable stamps which had belonged to Mr. Capper, a form master, and which had vanished.

Dixon Hawke
Dixon Hawke was called by many “The Scottish Detective” because he was created and issued by the powerful publishing firm of D. C. Thomson of Dundee, Scotland. Hawke first appeared in 1919 in the Dixon Hawke Library, which ran through 576 issues right up to 1941, followed by Dixon Hawke Case Books, consisting of short stories. He also appeared in short stories in The Adventure. In the early 1970s he was still appearing in the The Sunday Post newspaper. Dozens of authors are known to have written the exploits of this famous sleuth.

Dixon Hawke was tall and aquiline, wore a dressing gown, and smoked a blackened briar. His assistant was Tommy Burke, and he had a bloodhound called Solomon. Hawke was a very influential detective, well enough known to dine with the Prime Minister. His friends at the Yard were Detective Inspector Baxter, Chief of Scotland Yard’s C.I.D. and Flying Squad, and William Baxford, Chief Assistant to Detective Inspector Duncan McPhinney. Hawke’s rooms were in Dover Street, just off Piccadilly and opposite the Ritz Hotel, and his housekeeper was a Mrs. Martha Benvie. A strange assortment of garments and disguises was littered in a small windowless room, sandwiched between two bookcases and hidden behind a curtain, and his rooms also had a somewhat hidden back flight of stairs, which few people knew about and which allowed him to get out unobserved. Hawke had a big Sunbeam roadster and a two-seater sports car that Tommy Burke drove.

John Hawke
He was an official Scotland Yard detective featured in “Clues Ltd” in Merry & Bright.

Marshal Hawke
He was featured in Chips in the 1920s, where he started out as a lone hand but gradually built up a team around him as the stories progressed. Eventually the team included Grip, his bloodhound, Tom Tucker and Topsy Turvey, his little assistants, and Pompey, the jolly Negro.

Tommy Hawke
A fresh-faced schoolboy of seventeen, Tommy Hawke worked for Hawke’s Detective Agency of Baker Street, London, run by his uncle John Hawke, late detective inspector at Scotland Yard. Tommy’s adventures were published in three books, Tommy Hawke, Detective (1939), Tommy Hawke at School, 1940, and Tommy Hawke’s Third Case (1953). Although the author’s name was given as Michael Patrick, the last volume was curiously dedicated to Tommy Hawke’s Godfather, Leonard Gribble-perhaps an indication of the actual authorship.

Hawkeye, the redskin detective of New York, was a tall, bronzed, grim-looking young man with the hooked nose, piercing black eyes and moccasin-shod feet of his race. This famous detective of the New York police and the Federal Secret Service in Washington appeared in the Rover in 1936.

Stepson of a Bow Street officer, Hawkeye joined the Bow Street Detective Force in 1819 at the age of sixteen. His wage in the metropolitan police was the magnificent sum of 20 pounds per year. He was featured in On the Scent; or, Hawkeye the London Detective, which was narrated in first person and appeared in No. 267 of Aldine Detective Tales.

Harry Hawkeye
He was a detective who appeared in an anonymous story entitled “Harry Hawkeye; or, The Missing Baronet” in Halfpenny Surprise No. 4 in 1894.

The first and original Hawkshaw the detective was really a very minor character who appeared in a very well known and historic play by Tom Taylor entitled The Ticket of Leave Man, which ran for 406 nights at the Olympic Theatre in the 1860s, and which was eventually staged many thousands of times. This play later appeared in story form in Aldine’s The Home Library of Powerful and Dramatic Tales No. 12. It would appear from this early beginning that the name Hawkshaw typified the very idea of a detective, because from this play came many other detectives named Hawkshaw, often as “send-ups” of the real thing. The original, who was a master of disguise, though no descriptive details were given, was probably the basis of a comic strip-also entitled Hawkshaw-by Gus Mager in the early 1920s in the New York World. Here he was a burlesque of Sherlock Holmes, complete with magnifying glass, pipe, deerstalker, etc.

Jack Hawkshaw
Jack Hawshaw, the man from Scotland Yard’s C.I.D., was a highly dramatic characterization that appeared in the Jester beginning in issue No. 309, April 1909. This tireless mantracker was a man of medium height, powerfully built, with keen blue eyes and ginger hair and mustache slightly darker in shade. He had a pleasant face with the look of a typical Bulldog Britisher. He was said to be the most famous of all Scotland Yard detectives and always solved a crime each week within the allotted two pages. He saved so many buxom somnambulists from ghastly deaths that it almost became routine, but this was the era for melodrama. In later stories he had a schoolboy assistant named Bob Weston.

Seth Hawkshaw
Seth Hawkshaw, described as a great detective, appeared in No. 4 of Boy’s Leader. This regular “down-east” Yankee, a tall, lanky and oddly dressed man, was aptly known as “The Yankee Detective.”

Detective Hazard
This sleuth appeared in Aldine Detective Tales in a reprint from American publications.

Hector Hazard
Known as the Admiralty Detective, Hector Hazard was employed solely on naval matters. He appeared in Lot-O-Fun.

Thorpe Hazell
Thorpe Hazell was a book collector and railway enthusiast who lived in a comfortable West End flat in London. Hazell, a man of independent means, was a slight, delicate-looking gentleman with a pale face and refined features. He had light red hair and dreamy blue eyes. Such an expert was he on railways and timetables that the various railway companies used to ask him for advice, and many a time he was able to solve mysteries because of his knowledge of the old Bradshaw railway guides. He was also a strong faddist on food and physical culture, and he drank lemonade with his breakfast. Thorpe Hazell appeared in a collection of short stories by Victor L. Whitechurch in 1912 entitled Thrilling Stories of the Railway.

Chief Inspector Hazlerigg
Chief Inspector-later Superintendent-Bobby Hazlerigg of Scotland Yard was a thick, square man with a red brick face. This grey-eyed equitable man was featured by Michael Gilbert in magazine stories and in novels including Close Quarters (1947).

Inspector Head
Inspector Jerry Head was featured by E. Charles Vivian in a number of novels including Cigar for Inspector Head (1935).

Inspector Headley
Inspector Headley, a tall, lean man as tough as leather, appeared in at least a half dozen novels by T. B. Morris, including The Papyrus Murders (1958). He had a long fair mustache, a pair of light blue eyes, and a voice that would have graced a parade of guards and put most sergeant majors back into the kindergarten class.

Caleb Hearn
This detective, created by S. Clarke Hook and featured in Boy’s Friend Library No. 188 in 1912, had rooms in Harley Street. A strange, calm man, Hearn had a striking face, regular features and large and very brilliant eyes. He had a bloodhound named Wolf and a boy assistant named Joe, who was heir to a fortune but preferred to work for the detective.

Lowden Heath
London detective Lowden Heath and his assistant Tommy Briggs were featured by E. Phillpott Wright in Vanguard Library in 1908. Another character created by Wright, Taffy Llewellyn, a schoolboy, left Blackminster School also to become an assistant to Heath. This story was told in No. 99 in “Taffy Llewellyn - Detective.” Other stories included No. 113, “The Pentland Mystery.”

Captain Merton T. Heimrich
Merton Heimrich, the sleepy-eyed, patient captain of the New York State Police, came from the pen of Francis and Richard Lockridge, though many of the books were published in England under the Lockridge’s pseudonym Francis Richards. Heimrich novels included Let Dead Enough Alone (1956), Accent on Murder (1958) and Show Red for Danger (1960).

Sally and Johnny Heldar
Henrietta Hamilton’s husband and wife team of antiquarian bookseller detectives, Sally and Johnny Heldar, lived in a Regency House in St. Cross Square, a peaceful Bloomsbury backwater, together with boy twins and a nanny. The duo was featured in four novels including Answer in the Negativeand At Night to Die (both 1959).

Hercule Renard was a former crack engine driver of a French Express, but had been downgraded for some reason to that of just a railway wheeltapper. The author was Pierre Audemars, and Hercule relates his own adventures, such as in The Obligations of Hercule (1947), which had a very strong detective flavour.

Holman Herne
Holman Herne, manhunter, and his boy assistant Little Will the Woodland Waif appeared in Funny Wonder in 1922. The stories were for the juvenile market.

Isaac Heron
Isaac Heron, gipsy gentleman detective, lived in an expensive flat with strangely decorated walls in Jermyn Street, London. He had spent the first eighteen years of his life travelling the gipsy camps of Europe, his mother having been a famous “Dukker” (fortune teller). His father, on the other hand, was an English aristocrat of somewhat eccentric habits who had become a follower of gipsy camps, loving the atmosphere and marrying Isaac’s mother in gipsy fashion. His father left him a fortune, insisting that he be educated in the best English fashion. Isaac Heron was lean and had a swarthy mahogany face with keen features, jet-black hair smoothly parted, and a hooked nose. He was usually clad in smart clothes. He worked on cases with his friend Detective Inspector Graves of Scotland Yard. Heron was featured in Gipsy in Evening Dress, a collection of untitled short stories by William J. Makin, published in 1933.

Sir Richard Herrivell
He was a noted wealthy antiquarian and a descendant of the famous Devonshire Herrivells, and a great lover of opera and music in general. Herrivell was formerly the owner of premises in Albemarle Street, where he also had a flat with a butler. Retiring from business, he went on world wide travels, closely linked with Chief Inspector Barton. At the outset of the First World War Barton had been an officer in Sir Richard’s company and had been promoted to second-in-command while Sir Richard had been transferred to the head of a Cavalry Squadron. Both men had been invalided out of the army and had met again when a burglary occurred at Sir Richard’s house. Both were featured in The Berg Case (1934; published in the U.S. as The Eyes of Death), The Whitney Case (1937), and other novels by John Bentley.

Martin Hewitt
The private investigator Martin Hewitt, owner of Hewitt’s Detective Agency, always preferred to work alone and declined the help of professional assistants. His room and office were situated just off the Strand, and there he employed an office boy clerk. Hewitt himself had formerly been a clerk for a firm of lawyers, to whom he had given brilliant service in collecting evidence on their behalf in the most difficult and hopeless cases. He had received numerous offers to work for other firms, but he had decided to set up his own detective agency. Hewitt claimed that his tremendous success was due purely to common sense and a sharp pair of eyes. The stories of his cases by Arthur Morrison were related by a journalist named Brett, who lived in the same block of bachelor chambers. The stories appeared in the Strand Magazine in the 1890s and were collected in book form as Martin Hewitt, Investigator (1894), Chronicles of Martin Hewitt (1895), Adventures of Martin Hewitt (1896) and The Red Triangle (1903).

In 1971 Peter Barkworth appeared as Hewitt in the ITV series The Rivals of Sherlock Holmes.

Alphabet Hicks
Rex Stout’s Alphabet Hicks, late of Harvard Law School, had yellow-brown eyes which by their glint and the configuration of their lids looked like those of a tiger. Hicks was a private detective, a dynamo of energy who was brusque and direct, and also very eccentric. He was featured in a book aptly titled Alphabet Hicks (1941).

Inspector Cuthbert Higgins
Detective Inspector Higgins of New Scotland Yard was a large, good-natured gentleman, and Cecil Freeman Gregg featured him in over 30 novels, beginning with The Murdered Manservant (1928; published in the U.S. in 1930 as The Body in the Safe) and also including Accidental Murder (1952), Sufficient Rope (1953), Night Flight to Zurich (1954), The Chief Constable (1955) and Dead on Time (1956).

Highway Patrol
This was a popular TV series, screened on Independent Television in the early 1960s. The Highway Patrol has a specialised job, although it may be called in to deal with any sort of crime. Murder, robbery and dangerous driving are among the varied problems which fall the lot of the patrol in its difficult work of keeping crime from the highways. The series consisted of authentic adventures taken from the files of all the (then) forty-eight states of America. Broderick Crawford in a helicopter starred in the leading role as Patrol Chief Dan Mathews.

Mr. H-LM-S
Mr. H-LM-S and Dr. W- appeared in The Wonderful Career of Ebenezer Lobb by Allen Upward (1900). This was, of course, a parody of Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson, complete with the well-known ulster and travelling cap, and the two were featured in a very humorous vein.

Superintendent Hockley
He was a man of medium height, with humorous eyes and thinnish hair that was going grey at the sides. His manner was quiet and almost differential, but the authority that lurked behind this outward display of amiability could be sensed. A creation of Gerald Verner, Hockley appeared in Grim Death (1960).

Miss Hogg
Reverend Austin Lee’s spinster detective, Miss Flora Hogg, was frumpish in her purple woollen three piece, battered felt hat and heavy outsize brogues. Although not fearfully astute, and never qualifying for the pulp magazines, Miss Hogg did however get to the solution in the end. She had the star role in nine novels including Sheep’s Clothing (1955) Call In Miss Hogg (1956) and Miss Hogg Flies High (1958).

Bulldog Holdfast
Private detective Harry Holdfast, partly Irish and wholly eccentric daredevil, was known as “Bulldog” in the Naval Service because he was endowed with limitless pluck. Slim of build but all muscle and sinew, he had a deep chest and breadth of shoulder. His long-fingered hands could grip like a steel vice. He had dark hair and his blue eyes could change to chilled steel when something drastic happened. Holdfast was clean shaven, with a sun-tanned face. His age was twenty-seven or eight, and he had a public school education. He was very well off and the owner of a yacht. Holdfast loved adventure and excitement and had had a wonderful career in the R.N.R. in the First World War, though he was considered mad as a hatter by many that knew him. His manservant Dene was an ex-naval gunner. Holdfast was featured in Boys Friend in the early twenties in a series of complete stories. The character was created by Cecil Hayter but the majority of the stories were anonymously written by J. W. Bobin.

Matthew Holman
Holman, a detective from Scotland Yard, appeared in The Crime and the Criminal by Richard Marsh in 1897.

Sherlock Holmes
Anything less than a book length biography can only prove inadequate for the greatest fictional sleuth of all time: Sherlock Holmes of 221B Baker Street, London (now said to be the home of the Abbey National Building Society). Indeed, so much has already been written about Holmes, together with deep and analytical studies of the individual merit and background of the stories themselves, that it is unlikely that this reference book will prove the answer to a nostalgic reader’s enquiries. Let it suffice for us to give the simple facts of Holmes.

Holmes was created by Arthur (later Sir) Conan Doyle and first appeared in A Study in Scarlet in Beeton’s Christmas Annual, December, 1887. The character was in part suggested by an eminent Edinburgh surgeon, Joseph Bell, under whom Doyle studied medicine. His assistant and foil was Doctor John H. Watson, and his greatest enemy Professor Moriarty.

Sherlock Holmes was familiarized to the public by his eccentricities and mannerisms, his nonchalance alternating with energy, his dressing gown and hypodermic syringe, as well as his amazing mental powers. His very person and appearance were such as to strike the attention of the most casual observer. In height he was rather over six feet, and so excessively lean that he seemed to be considerably taller. On his ascetic face his eyes were sharp and piercing, and his thin, hawklike nose gave his whole expression an air of alertness and decision. His chin, too, had the prominence and squareness which mark the man of determination. His hands were invariably blotted with ink and stained with chemicals, yet he was possessed of extraordinary delicacy of touch. His mode of dress, when out of doors and not wearing the stained dressing gown, was that of Inverness cape, deerstalker hat, and curved pipe.

Having outlined these bare facts, we can do no better than direct the reader who wishes to delve deeper into the character toward the literature concerning Holmes. Those who have a desire for deeper knowledge of the man would find these excellent resources: My Dear Holmes-A Study in Sherlock by Gavin Brend, The Sherlock Holmes Companion by Michael and Molly Hardwick, Sherlock Holmes by William S. Baring-Gould, and In the Footsteps of Sherlock Holmes by Michael Harrison. Other interesting studies are Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson by H. W. Bell, Sherlock Holmes: Fact or Fiction? by T. S. Blakeney, and An Irregular Guide to Sherlock Holmes by Jay Finley Christ. In Baker Street Studies Dorothy L. Sayers wrote “Holmes College Career” and Vernon Rendall wrote “The Limitations of Sherlock Holmes,” and in Essays in Satire Ronald Knox wrote “Studies in the Literature of Sherlock Holmes.” Sir Desmond MacCarthy wrote a very good article in The Listener in the issue for 11 December 1929, and among others who wrote about the character we must include S. C. Roberts, A. G. MacDonell, Vincent Starrett, Christopher Morley, Howard Haycraft, E. V. Knox, H. Douglas Thomson, Edgar W. Smith, John Dickson Carr, and E. M. Wrong’s Introduction to Crime and Detection.

Then of course there is the Journal of the Sherlock Holmes Society of London, a devoted company of enthusiasts. They have brothers across the sea who call themselves The Baker Street Irregulars of New York.

So great is the name of Holmes even after all these years that in 1969 an announcement appeared that a new hotel, The Sherlock Holmes, was to be opened in Baker Street, on the site of the former YWCA hostel at 108/110/112/114 Baker Street. The hotel was planned to have 108 bedrooms, each with a bath, and possibly including an annex with a further 30 bedrooms.

Holmes has of course been portrayed on stage, screen, radio and television. Probably of these media the cinema has done most towards preservation and immortalization of Sherlock Holmes. Whether he has been portrayed in a manner that the reader would have wished is a matter of conjecture, and is of course dependent on personal taste. Actors who have played the starring role include William Gillette, Clive Brook, Basil Rathbone, Peter Cushing and Robert Stephens. From the writers’ own viewpoint, Basil Rathbone provided the best interpretation of Holmes. His facial resemblance to the Holmes of the stories was striking, and his Watson, played by Nigel Bruce, also conformed to the image in our mind’s eye and to Sidney Paget’s original drawings. Some of the Holmes films starring these two that appeared in the 1940s were House of Fear (“Adventure of the Five Orange Pips”), Pearl of Death (“Six Napoleons”), The Woman in Green, Pursuit to Algiers, Sherlock Holmes and the Secret Code and Terror by Night.

The most recent of the Holmes films appeared in 1970, after 126 previous films, the first of which was an American one reeler way back in 1903. In this latest version Holmes was played by Robert Stephens and Dr. Watson by Colin Blakely. The film was The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes, written by Billy Wilder and I. A. L. Diamond. With this film all pretense of living up to Doyle’s original character was dismissed, though the actors’ performance, production, and settings were excellent. In fact, Baker Street was recreated magnificently at Pinewood Studios in one of the finest achievements in film design ever accomplished. Some will feel this film is entirely alien to the image of Holmes as Doyle had created him, while the view of others is that this should be accepted as the other side of Holmes, that is, the unwritten side, as the title suggests. In this somewhat controversial film it seems that Holmes was quite peeved about those stories which Dr. Watson had written for the Strand Magazine under the pseudonym of A. Conan Doyle. He felt that Watson had a tendency to exaggerate, and he objected to the deerstalker and Inverness cape as “this improbable costume you have saddled me with.” He also insisted that he was really a poor violinist, and was far from being a cocaine addict. The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes in book form quickly followed, written by Michael and Mollie Hardwick and based, of course, on the Billy Wilder film.

Holmes has been heard on radio in this country for many years, with Carlton Hobbs as a familiar voice in that role. Leslie Charteris collaborated with Denis Green on U.S. radio for a similar series, with Charteris providing the plots and Green the dramatisation. This series starred Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce, famous for their film portrayals. Together Charteris and Green wrote more than seventy scripts, including all the mysterious adventures which are referred to in the Doyle stories but which he never wrote. In fact, curiously enough Charteris and Green created more Holmes adventures than Doyle himself.

In this country Holmes has proved very popular on BBC Television with Peter Cushing and Douglas Wilmer as Sherlock and Nigel Stock at Dr. Watson, with William Lucas in the role of Inspector Lestrade of the Yard. These stories have been dramatised for television by such writers as Hugh Leonard, Michael and Mollie Hardwick, Alexander Baron, and Bruce Stuart. The Cushing/Stock portrayal is considered one of the most accurate and authentic ever made.

Some attempt to continue the adventures of Sherlock Holmes in book form was made by Sir Arthur’s son, Adrian Conan Doyle, who died in his Geneva home in 1970, and John Dickson Carr. But this never went beyond one collection of stories. It is interesting to note that the famous author Mark Twain featured Sherlock Holmes on a visit to America in A Double-Barrelled Detective Story, presumably with Sir Arthur’s permission.

In April 1971 the announcement came from Geneva that the heirs of Sir Conan Doyle were to auction off the Holmes copyright. Bids were to be made to the Fides Company in Geneva, trustee of the Conan Doyle estate since the author died in 1930. It was stated that the three ladies who owned the estate, Conan Doyle’s daughter and the widows of his sons Dennis and Adrian, have decided that it would be better for them to have a fixed investment than to continue with the work of exploiting the copyrights.

Detective Inspector Holroyd
This sleuth of E. And M. A. Radford appeared in The Six Men in 1958.

Dernel Holt
Holt, a detective with offices in the Strand, appeared in 1907 issues of Funny Cuts. This keen-eyed young man was a practical judge of physiognomy and was very successful as an analytical detective, which was the basis of his sleuthing.

Garry Holt
This Scotland Yard detective made his first appearance in the opening number of Halfpenny Wonder in March 1914. His nickname was King of Detectives, and in fact the subtitle of the Holt serial “Hunter & Hunted” by Richard Essex was “King of Detectives vs King of Crooks.”

Larry Holt
The position occupied by Larry Holt was something of a mystery to the officials at Scotland Yard. His rank was Inspector, his occupation was the administrative work of a Commissioner, and it was generally understood that he was in line for the first vacant Assistant Commissioner’s job. Holt was a fairly tall, good looking man who starred in The Dark Eyes of London by Edgar Wallace in 1924.

Martin Holt
A series of stories in Surprise in the early 1930s featured Martin Holt as the detective, with his assistant, the page boy Billy Brewer. The background of this detective was particularly appropriate for the title of the publication, for Martin Holt, believed to be the richest man in the world, had acquired his thousand millions when as a penniless tramp six millionaires had handed their money in securities over to him before dying in an earthquake. Holt had rugged, bronzed features and clear grey eyes, and conducted his sleuthing out of his splendid Park Lane mansion. In his investigations he employed a very clever detective named Pyefinch, who was a great asset to him on his cases.

Page 13 Index Table-of-Contents